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Pioneers & Entrepreneurs

   The biographies featured in this section, by no means cover all of the men who contributed significantly to the development of the Scugog area. Information about many of the pioneers who first settled in Reach and Scugog is almost non-existent, as there were no newspapers to report on happenings in this area until late in 1857. Even throughout much of the 1860s information is scarce, due to a great number of missing issues of the Ontario Observer, the areas first newspaper.
   On the following pages are some the men who cut their way through the bush to get to Lake Scugog. They cleared the land, built crude log homes, opened saw mills and grain elevators, built thriving towns from crude settlements, brought the railway to their doorstep, and laid the groundwork for the communities we live in today.

SURNAMES: A - D | E - H | I - L | M - P | Q - Z

   James Emaney was born in England in 1830, and came to Canada in 1857, settling in Oshawa. Here he practiced his trade as a carriage maker and blacksmith, but after a few years moved to Prince Albert, Ont., where he opened his own shop called the Ontario Carriage Factory. He successfully operated the business in that village until 1872, at which time he moved to Port Perry and opened his shop on Perry St.
   In 1881 he sold his workshops, residence and entire premises, and moved to Toronto, where he went into partnership with his son-in-law under the name of Emaney and Mallett. He also operated the Nipissing House hotel for 10 years and then moved to Whitby where he became owner of the Royal Hotel for five years.
   While a resident of the community, Mr. Emaney became a charter member of the Prince Albert Public Hall Joint Stock Company, serving in a variety of offices. He was also a devoted member of the Brethren of the Prince Albert Lodge of A.F. and A.M., a member of the Church of England and a staunch Conservative.
   James Emaney died at the age of 76 years, on Monday, July 2, 1906, at the home of his son-in-law W.H. Leatch, at 456 Parliament St., Toronto, and was buried at Pine Grove Cemetery, Prince Albert.
   Mr. Emaney was married to Elizabeth Emma Newstead, in London, England in 1854 and the couple raised four daughters. Mrs. Emaney passed away at Whitby during December 1894.

   The residents of Reach Twp. were called on to mourn the loss of one of the staunchest standard bearers, with the death of Abel W. Ewers at his home at Manchester on Sunday, Sept. 23, 1894, in his 84 year.
   Mr. Ewers was born on March 14, 1911, under the ample folds of the Star Spangled Banner, but as a young man came to Canada and located in Whitby, where he carried on the business of carriage builder.
   About 1844, Mr. Ewers moved from Whitby into the township, selecting Manchester as his place of residence. He carried on the business of carriage maker, which after some years he gave up, to give more attention to his 200 acre farm, adjoining the village, which he continued up until the time of his death.
   From his first entrance into the township, he fully identified himself with every movement, tending to forward the best interests of the community and the people. He was elected to Reach Township council and after faithful discharge of duty as a councillor for a number of years, he was attained the position of Reeve for 1855, 1856 and again from 1875 to 1877.
   He was a staunch supporter of construction of the Centre Road, which provided vastly improved travel for the public in the north part of the county. He was a faithful husband, kind father and courteous and obliging neighbor. His wife, Roda (Munro) predeceased him by 21 years. He left four sons and seven daughters to mourn his loss.

   Hubert Ebbels was born June 13, 1845 in Exeter, England, and as a young boy travelled to Canada with his parents. He attended the old Grammar School in Toronto and graduated from Osgoode Hall in 1862.
   Immediately after graduation he settled at Petrolia, during the first oil boom days in that centre. In Sept. 1868 he began practice at Port Perry under the name, Spence and Ebbels Barristers, which he continued until his retirement, when he moved to Toronto. He was a member of Walmer Road Baptist Church.
   Mr. Ebbels was a strong supporter of education and in 1873 headed efforts to have the residents of Reach Township taxed for the construction of a new Port Perry High School.
   In 1919, he sold his law practice to W. H. Harris, after practicing his profession for more than 50 years in Port Perry.
   At 90 years of age, he was one of the oldest lawyers in Ontario, and although having retired from active practice in 1919, until his death he had been in excellent health.
   Mr. Hubert L. Ebbels, passed away at his home in Toronto on June 26, 1935, and was interred at Pine Grove Cemetery in Prince Albert. His wife, Effie (Sinclair) predeceased him on Dec. 20, 1928. Surviving is his son Arthur S. Ebbels, of Toronto, and daughter Mrs. R.M. Noble of Winnipeg.

   Samuel Farmer was born in England in 1871 and travelled to Canada at the age of 15, taking a job on a farm at Balinafad, Erin Township. In all he spent about 12 years working as a farmer's helper. Mr. Farmer was a young man with much courage and perseverance and at the age of 23 took money a local farmer owed him in board, and attended public school at Epsom to try his entrance for High School. Securing his certificate he attended Port Perry High School, walking six miles to school each day.
   When his money was exhausted, he took a job at the Uxbridge Journal, where he had been a correspondent, for $2.50 per week. His jobs included typesetting, press washing, reporting and sweeping the floors. From Uxbridge he ventured to Toronto and spent 12 years in various offices. When he left Toronto he was a mechanical superintendent at Toronto Saturday Night.
   While in Toronto, Mr. Farmer met Emily Grace Abernathy and in June 1901 the couple married at the Old St. Andrew's Church in that city.
   The urge was strong to buy a newspaper and he managed to borrow enough to purchase The Port Perry Star and Standard in September 1907, from owner Rev. Wm. H. Cline.
   Over the next forty years he was a man in love with his work, and was proud of his community, always striving for its best interests. He was a driving force for prohibition during the 1920s having absolutely no use for liquor or foul language, often editorializing against both.
   He worked constantly for education, and spent many extra days and weeks travelling around the country learning about schools and possible grants and teachers' values. For his 31 years service to the Board of Education, he was honoured by being presented with a life membership in the O.E.A.
   He served as president of the Public Library Board, Chairman of the Bd. of Education, Vice President of the Agricultural Society, and was the first to install a hydro motor in his business when electricity came to town in 1922.
   In 1913, he published the first book written about the history of Port Perry and area, called On The Shores of Scugog.
   Sam and Grace Farmer raised four children, Marion, Anne, Archie and John. Mrs. Farmer, like her husband, was always interest in education and the church. She taught a bible class for many years and worked along with her husband in both fields.
   Mr. Farmer passed away April 30, 1948, in his 78th year, after publishing The Port Perry Star successfully for 41 years. His wife, Grace Farmer was born in 1873 and passed away on March 15, 1954.

   Col. Farewell, was born in Ontario County in 1840 and lived his entire life there. He served as Crown Attorney for the County of Ontario for more than 50 years, and was widely known in legal circles throughout the Province.
   He was called the the bar in 1864; appointed Crown Attorney of Ontario Cty. in 1872; was designated as a Q.C. in 1889; and became a Bencher of the Upper Canada Law Society in 1906.
   In municipal matters he was keenly interested, serving on the Whitby town council; was chairman of the High School Board, and held the post of County Clerk for many years.
   Col. Farewell died on Sat., December 26, 1923, as a result of an auto accident. His funeral took place from the family residence in Whitby, and was attended by a large number of friends and dignitaries.

   Philip Figary was born in Newfoundland in 1870 and as a young man taught school in that province for a number of years. While in Newfoundland he was married and two children were born. About 1905, he moved to Toronto where he operated a photo studio on Yonge St. until 1919, at which time he moved to Port Perry. His first wife passed away in 1914.
   Mr. Figary married a second time, in 1915, to Florrie Honour. From this marriage five children were born. In 1917 he purchased the large orchard at the south end of the town from Mr. Monet, but did not move to town until 1919.
   After arriving in town he became interested in the community. Service, was the word which governed Mr. Figary's life, and for many years he devoted a great deal of his time in forwarding the welfare of the village.
   He ran successfully for town council in 1921, and served in that capacity until 1923 when he was elected Reeve of the village. Mr. Figary was in his third term as Reeve, when he became sick and passed away on April 21, 1925. In matters of bringing hydro to town, he accomplished a great deal of constructive work and was given the honour of presiding over the public meeting to formally open the hydro system in the town.
   Although his time in the community was relatively brief, he had become one of the town's outstanding figures, and his demise was a sad blow to the people of the community.
   He was a strong supporter of the temperance movement, a Methodist, Conservative and a prominent member of the Orange Lodge. He was also well known for his activities in the Oddfellows. One of his greatest accomplishments is said to have been his efforts in having a new cement roadway laid through the village in 1924.
   Mr Figary passed away on Tuesday, April 21, 1925 while in his 56th year. In his death, Port Perry lost one of the best municipal officers that had ever given themselves to the best interests of the community. At County Council, following his death, the chair occupied by Reeve Figary was draped in black as a token of respect to his memory.
   He was survived by his wife Florrie, their five children, and two children from a previous marriage. A large crowd gathered for his funeral, held in the United Church, Port Perry, and he was buried in Pine Grove Cemetery on April 23, 1925.

   Thomas Follick was born in Durham County, where he taught school in St. Mary's for 18 years. He later taught in St. Catherines before coming to Port Perry.
   He arrived in Port Perry to become principal of Port Perry High School in 1912, but resigned two years later to take charge of a high school near Athens, Ont. He returned the following year and was re-hired as principal of the local high school, finally retiring in June 1928 after serving as principal at the local high school for 15 years.
   Mr. and Mrs. Follick had been visiting his sister in Niagara Falls, when her house caught on fire from an overheated stove and explosion of an oil stove. Mrs Follick escaped, but Mr. Follick's body was found in the bathroom of the house.
   Flags of the Port Perry High School and town hall were flown at half mast in memory of the former principal. His funeral was held in St. Mary's, where he had spent the best years of his life. Men and women from all parts of Ontario came to pay their respect to their teacher of former days.

   The entire community was shocked to hear of the sudden death of Major T.C. Forman, on Jan. 4, 1904. Mr. Forman was 76 years of age when he collapsed on the Queen St., near the Town Hall, while rushing to the scene of a fire in the centre of town.
   Mr. Forman was born in Aberdeenshire, Scotland and was the oldest mercantile businessman in Ontario County. For many years, in the 1850s and 1860s, he had been one of the largest grain buyers at Prince Albert. He also operated a store in that village until 1874, when he closed it and moved to Port Perry, opening one of the largest dry goods, grocery and hardware stores in the town.He always took a leading part in anything likely to enhance the interests of the community.
   He served as Reeve of the Township of Reach in 1859.
   Known locally as Major T.C. Forman, he was a man of considerable military renown and proudly wore the badge of Sovereign, acknowledging the valuable services he rendered for his adopted and beloved country. He also received a medal for his efforts in the Fenian Raids of 1866. and was decorated for his long service to the military. His generosity in the organization and maintenance of a Volunteer Company was unprecedented in Canada.
   He was an exemplary member of the Presbyterian Church and was the father of Presbyterianism in Prince Albert, where for more than 50 years he was superintendent of the Sunday School.
   Mr. Forman was survived by three sons, all successful in the mercantile business. Mr. Wm. C. Forman of Ingersoll, Mr. Thos. A. Forman of Woodstock and Mr. James A. Forman of Port Perry.

   Henry W. Foy was born in 1834, the son of United Empire Loyalist William H. Foy, and for many years before Port Perry became incorporated as a village, was actively engaged in business. He is distinguished as being one of the first men to establish a business in the town.
   In June 1869 he became proprietor of the leading hotel in Port Perry, the Royal Canadian Hotel, which later became known as the Brunswick Hotel. He operated it successfully until 1884, when he moved to Whitby. He was an unflinching Conservative.
   H.W. Foy was married to Sarah Marie, who died at 28 years of age in 1864. Mr. Foy passed away in Port Perry on Monday, July 7, 1902, aged 68 years and was interred at Pine Grove Cemetery, Prince Albert.

   John Foy came to Scugog while still a young man, and settled on Scugog Island. He remained there his entire life, farming the land for almost 60 years.
   In 1855, when Scugog Township separated from Reach Twp., Mr. Foy was appointed as the first clerk and treasurer of the new Scugog municipality, retaining his office until within a few days of his death. He was described as an efficient officer, methodical in all the details of his several duties, and was considered the most efficient clerk in the entire County of Ontario.
    At the time of his death, on Sunday, Dec. 10, 1905, he was 76 years of age. Mr. Foy was known as a loving husband and a kind, father, and left behind his widow, four sons and two daughters. His funeral was largely attended by his friends and family.

   James W. Gamble was born in 1828 in Markham, Ontario, the son of Moses and Margaret Gamble. He was one of the earliest settlers on Scugog Island, and was elected as the first Reeve of the new Scugog Township, when it separated from Reach Township in 1856. He also served as Reeve in 1857, but never held public office again.
   During his term as Reeve, as a member of the Ontario County council, he encouraged the County to constructed a floating bridge between Reach Twp. and Scugog Island.
   His wife, Lydia M. Gamble, aged 38 years, passed away at their residence on Scugog on Thurs., October 14, 1869. The funeral cortege left the residence for services conducted in the Methodist Episcopal Church at Borelia. The church could not nearly accommodate all who sought to be present. Mrs. Gamble was highly esteemed for her gentle nature and noble qualities.
   Months after the death of his wife, on March 4, 1870, J.W. Gamble held an auction of his farm stock, implements etc., and moved from the community in which his family had lived.

   Another of Scugog's early pioneer settlers, Ezra W. Gamble was born in 1825 at Markham, Ontario, the eldest son of Moses and Margaret Gamble.
   Ezra Gamble was the older brother of James, and became the second man to be elected Reeve of Scugog Township, serving for six consecutive years, from 1858 until 1864.
   His wife, Hannah (Redman) Gamble, passed away in June 26, 1859 at 34 years of age.

   Adam Gordon was born in Scotland on Sept. 16, 1831, and brought to Canada by his father and mother in 1838. He was the fifth child of eight sons and two daughters. In 1856 he married Christina, daughter of Captain Campbell, who was his companion for the rest of his life.
   He moved to Reach Township in the 1860s and was an active businessman, largely engaged in the grain trade, as owner of the Manchester Warehouse. In 1870 he built a large two-storey building in the centre of the village Manchester, with everything necessary for a first class general store, which he operated successfully until selling it in 1874.
   Mr. Gordon also filled many municipal offices, first being elected as a Reach Township councillor in 1866. He later served as Deputy Reeve, and was elected as Reeve of the township for two years, in 1871 and 1872.
   He was a man whose honourable dealings attained him unlimited confidence in the community, and in 1874 he successfully contested the seat for North Ontario in the general election against the former member, W.H. Gibbs of Whitby. He was an attentive member of the house, full of work and always alive to the best interests of his constituents.
   The news of the unexpected death of Adam Gordon, while still sitting as a member of the Dominion Parliament, was received with public shock. Mr. Gordon, who was only 45 years of age, passed away at his Port Perry residence on May 27, 1876 after a brief illness of only four days. He was surrounded by his aged father, widow and large family of young children at the time of his death.
   Mr. Gordon was well esteemed as a private citizen as was evidenced by the large funeral cortege, which accompanied the remains from Port Perry to Whitby, where he was laid to rest at Union Cemetery. Many of the leading gentlemen from all parts of the County were on hand to pay their last tribute of respect to his memory.
   Adam Gordon left his wife Christina, three sons and five daughters, between the ages of 3 and 18 years to mourn him.

   James Graham was very involved in the agriculture scene, serving as a director of the North Ontario Agriculture Society for many of years, and in 1868 being elected president of the Reach and Scugog Agriculture Society, a position he held for five years. During the 1890s he also served as president of the local Reach, Scugog, Port Perry Ploughing Association.
   While a resident of Reach Township, Mr. Graham was elected Reeve of the township on four occasions: 1867, 1870, 1872, 1873.
   In 1874 he purchased Springwater Farm, an 800 acre farm on Scugog Island, from W.S. Sexton.
   Two years after moving to Scugog, he was elected Reeve of Scugog Township, a position he retained for seven consecutive years. In 1879 he was honoured by being elected Warden of Ontario County.
   Throughout the 1870 and 80s he was one of the driving forces behind encouraging Ontario County to replace the floating Scugog Bridge and construct a permanent roadway.
   James Graham passed away on July 7, 1885, at 75 years of age. His wife, Margaret (Saunders), was 94 years old when she died on Oct. 26, 1918.

   Thomas Graham was born in Reach Township on Sept. 25, 1854 and moved to Scugog Island about 20 years later. In 1879 he married Martha Anne Nesbitt, and of this marriage were born five sons - Lorne, Russell, Charles, Stewart and Carleton.
   About 1881 he purchased a farm consisting of about 90 acres, at lot two, 7th concession, situated on rising ground with a magnificent view, about a mile from Port Perry at the end of the Scugog Bridge. He later purchased an additional 85 acres to the east of his farm, of which he cleared the stumps and turned into land capable of producing excellent crops. On the farm, he lived in a fine brick house, ample in size and very comfortable. His two large barns were built in an 'L' shape, measuring 40x62 and 36x56 with stone foundation.
   Recognized as one of the most prosperous farmers of the area, Mr. Graham tended to his apple orchard, grew top quality grains and seeds and was a breeder of pure bred stock. He had a large herd of cattle, pigs and horses, which he stabled in his barns.
   Mr. Graham was an intelligent and public spirited citizen, who served on Scugog Council for many years and was Reeve for four terms, 1891 to 1994. He was appointed to the position of clerk for the township in 1905, a position he held for 28 years. He was honoured for his service to the township in 1936, at which time he was presented a hickory walking cane.
   In addition to his public life, Mr. Graham was identified with the Scugog Agricultural Society for many years and served as president of the fair when it was held in Port Perry. He was a valued member of the Shorthorn Breeders Assoc., served as president of the Reach, Scugog and Port Perry Clydesdale Association, and was in constant demand at fall fairs to judge cattle.
   During the span of Mr. Graham's life many changes took place. Bush farms were been cleared of their timber, log houses replaced by modern dwellings, roads constructed in place of trails, and the floating bridge was replaced by a permanent roadway. In all these improvements Mr. Graham took an active part.
   In the passing of Mr. Graham the district lost one of its most outstanding farmers, who had an enviable reputation among breeders throughout Canada. Thomas Graham passed away on March 22, 1936 at 82 years of age. His wife Martha died on Jan. 27, 1927 in her 65th year.

   Mr. Hagerman was an important and notable figure in the Port Perry area for many years.
   He was born near Markham in 1857 and after he grew into manhood, kept a store at Zephyr for a number of years. He later moved to Manchester where he kept a store for 20 years, and purchased grain at the Ross Elevator at Manchester Station.
   Mr. Hagerman was the local postmaster and held the position of municipal treasurer of the Township of Reach for some years. He was fond of music, lead the choir at Manchester Methodist Church and was a Sunday School teacher.
   Mr. Hagerman married Ellen (Walker) about 1884, and the couple raised four children, three girls and a boy. He was a member of Fidelity Lodge, A.F.&A.M., Port Perry.
   He and his family moved to a new home in Toronto about 1914, where Mr. Hagerman died on Friday, January 16, 1920.

   William R. Ham was born near Columbus on Christmas day, December 25, 1843, and lived there until he was a young man. He married Jane M. (Real) of Mariposa when he was 23-years old, and farmed in Mariposa for 10 years before retiring from the farm at the age of 33 years.
   Mr. Ham then moved to Port Perry for eight years and while living in the town served on the local council. He later bought a farm on Scugog Island, where he lived for about 25 years. While a resident of the Island he served as Reeve of Scugog Twp. and a member of county council for 13 years.
   After the death of his wife on Dec. 16 1908, he travelled to the west, where he had considerable land holdings. He lived there until a few years ago when due to illness he returned to live with his daughter, Mrs. Wm. Real, at Port Perry in 1929. He was ill for a long time before his death on Aug. 17, 1932. He was survived by three daughters; Mrs. Gibbard, Mrs. Wm. Real and Mrs. A.R. Turner. Interment was made at Pine Grove Cemetery.

   Charles Hiscox was an agreeable and exemplary townsman, honest, honorable and upright in his business transactions, a consistent and undeviated Christian, and a devoted member of the Methodist Church. He was a kind and faithful friend, and affectionate and watchful father and the loving and beloved husband of Lidia (Spender).
   During his long residence and business career in Prince Albert, and his six years in Port Perry, he established a reputation to which but few attain. He was not anxious to reap riches, but through industry, frugality and enterprise, was rewarded satisfactorily.
   Charles Hiscox passed away at Prince Albert on Tues., Jan. 27, 1880, aged 61 years, leaving his wife Lidia, and children.

   James Holden was born in Stouffville, County of York on February 29th, 1828.
   His first engagement in mercantile pursuits began in 1857, at the age of 29 years, when he moved to Prince Albert and commenced publication of the Ontario Observer, the communities first newspaper. The first issue came off the press on Thursday, December 10, 1857.
   After seven years in Prince Albert, he moved to Whitby where he immediately identified himself with the interests of the County Town and became largely responsible for the progress of the railway, particularly the extension of the line from Port Perry to Lindsay.
   In Whitby, Mr. Holden held almost every municipal position, from councillor to reeve, and mayor of the town by acclamation. His only public defeat was to the Hon. T.N. Gibbs in 1873, the newly appointed Minister of Sir John A. MacDonald's cabinet.
   His death at the age of 53 years came as a shock to his many friends and to his colleagues from the Whitby, Port Perry and Lindsay Railway Company of which he was managing director. He passed away at Dominion City, Manitoba, on Monday, Oct. 24, 1881. His funeral was the largest ever seen in Whitby for over a quarter century, with between three and four thousand people attending.
   He is reported to have been a man of great perseverance, and public enterprise, and although undemonstrative, a warm friend who never forgot a friend, or missed an opportunity to do him a good turn.
   At the time of his death, James Holden left behind a widow and large family of nine children, four boys and five girls.

   R.M. Holtby was born on the families homestead farm south of Manchester, the son of William and Mary (Dobson) Holtby. The land on which he farmed was the pioneer homestead of his grandfather.
   He acquired the magnificent property when he was 21 years of age, and in 1891 married Addie J.S. (Kent). Their residence was a substantial two storey brick building 33x36', and the barn 54x100' with a stone foundation.
   The young Holtby remained on the farm until 1925, becoming interested in stock raising, particularly Clydesdales and Holstein-Friesian.
   Mr. Holtby, or "Bob" to his friends, combined the vocations of farmer, drover and butcher and also bred cattle and lambs for market. His name will always be remembered in connection with Holstein Breeders' Association, of which he was Field Secretary for many years. He and the late Robert Walker, were among the first to introduce Holstein cattle into this district.
   Mr. Holtby served as a member of Reach Twp. council, County Council and held the position of reeve during 1902 and 1903. In 1926 he was named Honourary President of the Port Perry, Reach and Scugog Agricultural Society and was often called on to judge cattle a fairs across the province. In December 1941 Mr. and Mrs. Holtby were honoured by more than 600 people at a dinner staged by the Holstein-Friesian Assoc., in honour of his 24 years of service to the association.
   He served as an elder in the United Church; and travelled great distances to be home Sunday morning in time for services.
   No man more thoroughly deserved the praise he received. He was one of those whom men "delighted to honour" for he was worthy. He was widely known throughout Canada and the United States and was greatly missed in many quarters.
   Robert M. Holtby passed away on Dec. 23, 1944. Mr. Holtby was survived by his wife Addie, two brothers and three sisters. The funeral, which was very largely attended, was conducted at the United Church Port Perry with interment at Pine Grove Cemetery, Prince Albert.

   Abnur Hurd arrived in the Township of Reach early in 1824 and built himself a residence a little to the east of where the village of Prince Albert now stands, thus forming the nucleus around which would later cluster, one of the most pleasant, peaceful villages anywhere to be found.
   He was about 34 years old when he settled in the township and immediately set about devising means for improving the condition of the, then, thinly scatted population, and even the poor, degraded, then, semi-savage Indians did not escape his attention, nor did he consider them beneath his notice.
   Abner Hurd stood nobly forward for over half a century as a leader and guide of the people in this section of the country, identifying himself with and taking a leading position in every movement which had for its object the encouragement of virtue and the improvement of the condition of his fellow men. With the assistance of some younger men in the village, he succeeded in raising the village of Prince Albert from its immediate neighborhood to a standard of industry, comfort and morality attained to by few and excelled by no other village on the continent.
   Mr. Hurd was held in a high degree of respect and esteem, and served many valuable services for the best interest of the village. He filled almost every position of honor and trust in the gift of the people, and never gave them cause to regret their choice. He was honorable and upright, a loving husband and indulgent partner, a good citizen and faithful friend. He was for many years the head of the only Sunday School in Prince Albert.
   In public life, he held the office of magistrate for many years, and proved himself a terror to evil doers and protector to those that did well.
   Abner Hurd passed away at Prince Albert on Monday, Nov. 24th, 1874 at 83 years of age. He lived universally respected, died regretted ,and takes his place among the honored dead. Large numbers turned out to pay their last tribute at the funeral service was held at the Wesleyan Methodist Church, Prince Albert. His wife, Apha Hurd died on Monday, Aug. 17, 1874, at 73 years of age.



By: Paul Arculus &
J. Peter Hvidsten

By: J. Peter Hvidsten

The History Of The
Markham Gang
By: Paul Arculus